Routine and quality of life of smokers and alcohol users during the covid-19 pandemic in Brazil
Keywords:COVID, depression, quality of life, anxiety, sleep disorders, alcohol, tabacco
Introduction: Quarantine imposed by COVID-19 has brutally affected the lives of all Brazilians. Manifestations of anxiety, depression and sleep disorders skyrocketed, especially in individuals with worse daily habits such as alcohol and tobacco consumption.
Objective: To assess the profile of alcohol and tobacco consumers and its impact on mental and sleep health during the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil.
Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of the DEGAS-CoV study database, aiming, among an online survey of 2,695 subjects, those who declared to be consumers of alcohol and/or tobacco. Possible depression and anxiety were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), while sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
Results: Smokers were associated to a greater rate of possible anxiety - 65% vs. 56%, OR 1,5 [1,10 — 2,09], and to a worse rate of bad sleep - 68% vs. 48% in non-smokers - OR = 2,33 [1,70 — 3,20]. We did not observe any relevant association regarding alcohol intake and possible anxiety or bad sleep, while levels of depression were lower among those - 42% vs. 50% in non-drinkers - OR = 0,73 [0,62 — 0,85]) - when the group was subdivided, rates of possible depression were of 41% in exclusive drinkers, vs. 48% in those who drank and smoked. Midwest and South inhabitants, people in the third quartile (28-38 y.o.), men, white, people with graduation/postgraduation levels and people with monthly income greater than R$ 10,000/month were more associated with alcohol consumption, whereas people in the last quartile (> 39 y.o.) and men were more associated with smoking.
Conclusion: In our sample, smoking was negatively associated to the quality of sleep and to greater propension to possible anxiety, but not to possible depression, while alcohol drinking was not negatively associated to the conditions studied, being even paradoxically associated to lower rates of possible depression. Lastly, alcohol consumption was more heterogenic than tobacco among subgroups. This information may help formulating better health promotion strategies by targeting specific groups in society.
Keywords: Quality of life; COVID; Depression; Anxiety; Sleep disorders; Alcohol; Tobacco.
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